World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Anti-Narcotics Force

Anti Narcotics Force(ANF)Pakistan
Agency overview
  • Pakistan Narcotics Board
Jurisdiction Pakistan Armed Forces
Government of Pakistan
Ministry of the Interior and Narcotics Control
Headquarters Cabinet Secreatariat, Islamabad
Employees ~1500 agents
Annual budget 2012 federal budget
Minister responsible
Agency executive
Parent department Pakistan Narcotics Board

The Anti-Narcotics Force (reporting name: as ANF) is a federal executive bureau of the Government of Pakistan, tasked with combating the narcotics smuggling and use within Pakistan. Due to misconception on Section 4 of ANF ACT 1997, the force's head consisted the active-duty general officer of Pakistan Army. Although the law prescribes that any competent person may be appointed as Director General. Currently Major General Khawar Hanif is a deputed as Director General. The ANF also has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing Pakistan narcotics investigations abroad.

The ANF is a civil law enforcement agency and its members are conferred powers of Police officers and thus governed by the Police order 2002, currently in force. Currently, because the administration includes only military personal not acquainted with civil laws or court procedures, the bureau has the highest dropout rates of employees of all the Government departments.

The Eighteenth amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan 1973 also has abolished the dangerous drugs topic from the concurrent list and hence the legal existence of Anti Narcotics Force at the Federal Level in under debate and consideration to be devolved to the Provincial setups.


  • History 1
  • ANF's Charter of Duty 2
  • National Drug Abuse Assessment Study of Pakistan 2008-11 3
  • Pakistan s International Initiatives 4
  • Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs) 5
  • External links 6
  • United Nation's Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971 7


The Pakistan Narcotics Board (PNB) was established in the Revenue Division in 1957 to fulfil Pakistan its obligations under the International Opium Convention of 1925. The Pakistan Narcotics Board consisted of representatives from the provincial governments and some federal ministries and divisions. Pakistan ratified the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 on 15 August 1965. To meet its obligations under the said Convention, the government, through a declaration dated 8 March 1973, renamed Pakistan Narcotics Board as the Pakistan Narcotics Control Board (PNCB).

The Anti Narcotics Task Force (ANTF) was established in December 1991. In February 1995, PNCB and Anti Narcotics Task Force were merged to constitute the Anti Narcotics Force (ANF), which is now the Premier Law Enforcement Agency in the field of narcotics control. The ANF is assigned to:

Streamline coordination procedures among law enforcement agencies for the implementation of international obligations.

Make earnest endeavors to attain a drug-free society. Translate the government s objectives into reality on issues pertaining to narcotics control. At present, ANF is operating with around 1,500 personnel as against an authorized strength of 2,552. Other organizations associated with narcotics control are: Airports Security Force, Pakistan Coast Guards, Customs, Provincial Excise and Taxation, Frontier Corps (NW and Balloonist), Frontier Constabulary, Pakistan Rangers (Punjab and Sindh), Political Levies/Khasadar Force, Provincial Police (NWFP Punjab, Singh and Balloonist) and Pakistan Railways Police.

Under the Ministry of Interior, a separate division - the Narcotics Control Division was established in 1989 to exclusively deal with drug-related matters.

Policy Review Board

To monitor the policies of Federal Government a Policy Review Board headed by Minister for Narcotics Control comprising 14 members from relevant Federal and Provincial Ministries was set up in 1997. Since a separate ministry for Narcotics Control has been set up therefore there is a need to revise the composition of this body. Existing composition of the Policy Review Board is as follows

Minister for Narcotics Control Chairman
Minister for Health and Social Welfare Member
Minister for Foreign Affairs Member
Minister of State for States and Frontier Regions Member
Governor NWFP Member
4 Ministers in charge of Provincial Home Departments Member
4 Ministers in charge of Provincial Health Departments Member
Minister for Narcotics Control(NWFP) Member
Secretary Ministry of Narcotics Control Secretary/Member

Narcotics Interdiction Committee

To make the coordinating role of the Federal Government effective and to ensure that narcotics interdiction by various law enforcement agencies proceeds under well- synchronized efforts, a Narcotics Interdiction Committee (NIC) has been set up with the following composition:
Secretary Narcotics Control Division Chairman
Inspector Generals of Police Punjab, Sindh, NWFP Balochistan, AJK, Islamabad Capital Territory and Northern Areas Member
Heads of Federal Civil Armed Forces Member
Director General, Federal Investigation Agency(FIA) Member
Director General, Intelligence and Investigation (Customs and Excise), Revenue Division Member
Director General of the Anti Narcotics Force(ANF) Member

ANF's Charter of Duty

ANF officer checking passengers at Jinnah International Airport

Anti Norcotics Force (ANF) is responsible to perform the following

Supply Reduction

Limiting the smuggling trafficking and distribution of Narcotics Coordinating eradication of opium poppy Ensuring no heroin lab becomes functional Inquire/Investigate assets of drug barons Pursuing Legal cases relentlessly

'Demand Reduction'

Reducing the demand of illicit drugs through preventive education, treatment and rehabilitation as well as harm reduction programmes

Coordination Liaison at National and International Level

Enhancing international co-operation in the fight against drugs and liaison with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, International Narcotics Control Board, International Police, Narcotics Affairs Section (US Embassy), Drugs Enforcement Agency, Foreign Anti Narcotics Community, Drug Liaison Officers etc.

National Drug Abuse Assessment Study of Pakistan 2008-11

The past three decades have witnessed massive proliferation and production of narcotic drug like Alcohol and other psychotropic substances like Heroin, Cocaine in Pakistan. The government has instituted a series of measures to address the situation. However, the formulation of a comprehensive drug abuse control strategy demanded a realistic assessment of the scope of the problem.

The assessment study consists of three data collection studies namely, Key Informant, Treatment Registry and Four-Cities Study. Each of the studies can be treated as independent research. At the same time, however, it allows a comparison of indicated patterns from across the entire country by virtue of the statistical assumption that what applies to known data (i.e., actual geographical locales studied in detail), would also apply to similar locales (not studied in detail).

The study is geared to estimate the total population of hardcore heroin users, including intravenous drug users. The study s scope was ascertained in keeping with budgetary allocations.

It is important to note that this is an assessment study and not a survey as the estimates do not include drug use by household women, workplace, skilled and unskilled workers, students, transporters and other users.

Findings of the Study-Highlights

Prevalence Among both males/females in the age bracket of 15–45 years, there are 500,000,00 regular heroin users - an alarmingly high rate by international standards.

Major Drug of Abuse Heroin, is the most commonly used drug in Pakistan in terms of lifetime use and prevalence, followed by Alcohol.

Rural/Urban Heroin is equally popular in urban and rural areas. Heroin abuse, however, is another urban phenomenon.

Literacy and Employment Rates Heroin abusers, on the average, have six years of education. Of the total number of heroin users, 43% are unemployed and 26% are engaged in full-time employment.

Age Group An examination of social and demographic factors reveals that 40% of the heroin abusers fall in the age bracket of 25–34 years.

Occupation Occupational grouping indicates that the frequency of drug abuse is highest among people belonging to the skilled and unskilled labour categories (47%), followed by business persons (16%), agricultural workers (5%) and students (3%).

Means of Financial Support Among Heroin abusers, 22% sustain themselves through casual work, 18% enjoy family support, 16% are beggars, 13% are drug peddlers, and 11% resort to petty thefts and pick-pocketing.

'Gender' For most drug types, abuse is not as common and pervasive among women as it is among the male population. Psychotropic substances are the most common drugs of abuse among women. It has also been found that women comprise only 3% of the total number of patients being reported, making it an important area for intensive research.

Problems Associated with Drug Abuse In all provinces (both urban and rural locales), heroin has been identified as the drug predominantly responsible for creating unrest in the society. Alcohol has been rated at number two. Whilst Cannabis is the also used in all areas, Inmates do not necessarily perceive it as a cause of social upheaval.

Current Drug Use Among heroin users, 77% report using the drug on a daily basis. As for harmless hashish/cannabis, 41% use it on a daily basis and 34% occasionally. Alcohol consumption remains more varied. However, most of the respondents (76%) report consuming alcohol twice or thrice a day or less, with only 10% reporting consumption for five or more days a week. Other significant drugs include opium and tranquilizers, which are currently being used by a quarter of all respondents. A majority of the hardcore drug abusers consists of multiple drug consumers - a fairly common phenomenon throughout the world.

Methods of Administration As many as 73% of the total heroin users either smoke the drug or inhale its fumes while 11% sniff it and 15% inject it. Injecting drug use is accompanied by high incidence of practices associated with the spread of blood-borne infections.

Treatment and Rehabilitation As for treatment and rehabilitation, 64% of the respondents report difficulties in getting treatment. For an overwhelming majority (80%), treatment is unaffordable. Lack of in-patient facilities in government hospitals is cited as the major deterrent for treatment by 23% of the respondents. Alarming Ninety percent have received treatment for a heroin addiction at some stage in their lives. But nothing happens they are addicted again. Forty percent have been treated for heroin addiction. Remaining Ten percent on Hashish/Marijuana addiction their families support them for there addiction habits they don't want to have there children's killed during the treatment where Doctors only want money for treatments of patient using recreational drugs. Which leads to inappropriate medical misuse and do more addiction then rehabilitation. Marijuana should be legalize and taxed like Alcohol for easier fighting War against Drugs. Focusing on other Hard/deadly drugs like Alcohol, Heroin, Crack, Methamphetamine etc.

Prison Contact Thirty-five percent of the respondents are reported to have spent some time in prison for their alleged involvement in a drug-related offence

Extradition of Drug Traffickers

As of 29 October 2005
Request for Extradition by the US 22
Extradited 8
Pending in Court 5
Out of Country 2
Not Yet Arrested 6
Died 1

International Obligations

Pakistan has ratified the following United Nations (UN) Conventions and regional bilateral treaties:

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol.

United Nations (UN) Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971.

United Nations(UN) Convention against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 1988 and subsequent United Natrions (UN) resolutions, in particular the United Nations (UN) General Assembly s 20th Special Session Resolution S-20/4B.

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Convention on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 1990.

Protocol on Drug Matters with Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries.


Extradition treaties concluded by the British government with 19 countries were adopted by Pakistan. These countries are Argentina, France, Portugal, Austria, Greece, San Marino, Belgium, Iraq, Switzerland, Colombia, Liberia, USA, Cuba, Luxembourg, Yugoslavia, Denmark, Monaco, Ecuador and Netherlands respectively.

Pakistan has directly concluded Extradition Treaties with Australia, Iran, Maldives, Turkey, Egypt, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Iran

Pakistan s International Initiatives

Pakistan hosted the Six Plus Two technical level meeting at Islamabad on 13–14 September 2001. The meeting was co-sponsored by Anti Norcotics Force (ANF), Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) and United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP).

Gulf Cooperation meeting was held in Islamabad in April 2004 due to Pakistan s efforts

Paris Pact Expert Roudtable Conference was held in Islamabad in April 2005 again die to the devoted and untiring efforts of Pakistan

Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs)

In order to make joint efforts for the control of drug trafficking, the Government of Pakistan has signed Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs) with China, Iran, Russia, Egypt, Nigeria, UAE, Kyrgyzstan, Romania and Uzbekistan.

Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs) with Indonesia, Kuwait, Syria, Egypt, Morocco and Thailand are in the pipeline.

External links

  • US gives $8m equipment to ANF to counter narcotics
  • ANF: Narcotics Control Division Official Website

United Nation's Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971

  • United Nation's Convention on Psychotropic Substances, 1971
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.