World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Indian general election, 1998

Article Id: WHEBN0009053808
Reproduction Date:

Title: Indian general election, 1998  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Pokhran-II, Mysore (Lok Sabha constituency), Lakshadweep (Lok Sabha constituency), Indian general election, 2009, Indian general election, 1998
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Indian general election, 1998

Indian general election, 1998

February 16, February 22, and February 28, 1998

All 545 seats in the Lok Sabha
273 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
 
Leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee Sitaram Kesri I. K. Gujral
Party BJP INC
Alliance NDA INC+
Leader's seat Lucknow Bihar
(Rajya Sabha)
Bihar
(Rajya Sabha)
Seats won 254 144 64
Seat change Increase25 Increase1 Decrease128
Popular vote 139,701,871 98,140,471
Percentage 37.21% 26.14% 11.74%
Swing Increase16.92% Decrease2.66% Decrease17.26%

Prime Minister before election

Inder Kumar Gujral
UF

Elected Prime Minister

Atal Bihari Vajpayee
NDA

General elections were held in India in 1998, after the government elected in 1996 collapsed and the 12th Lok Sabha was convened. New elections were called when Indian National Congress (INC) left the United Front government led by I.K. Gujral, after they refused to drop the regional Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) party from the government after the DMK was linked by an investigative panel to Sri Lankan separatists blamed for the killing of Rajiv Gandhi.[1] The outcome of the new elections was also indecisive, with no party or alliance able to create a strong majority. Although the Bharatiya Janata Party's Atal Bihari Vajpayee regained his position of Prime Minister getting support from 286 members out of 545, the government collapsed again in late 1998 when the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, with its 18 seats, withdrew their support, leading to new elections in 1999. It also marked the first time since independence that India's traditional governing party, the INC, failed to win two consecutive elections.

Turnout was 61.97%.

Results

Party Acronym Alliance % of votes Seats
Bharatiya Janata Party BJP NDA 25.59% 182
Indian National Congress INC Congress 25.82% 141
Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI(M) United Front 5.4% 32
Samajwadi Party SP 4.93% 20
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam AIADMK NDA 1.83% 18
Rashtriya Janata Dal RJD Jan Morcha 2.78% 17
Telugu Desam Party TDP 2.77% 12
Samata Party SAP NDA 1.76% 12
Communist Party of India CPI United Front 1.75% 9
Biju Janata Dal BJD NDA 1% 9
Shiromani Akali Dal SAD NDA 0.81% 8
West Bengal Trinamool Congress WBTC NDA 2.42% 7
Janata Dal JD United Front 3.24% 6
Independents - 2.37% 6
Shiv Sena SS NDA 1.77% 6
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam DMK United Front 1.44% 6
Bahujan Samaj Party BSP Jan Morcha 4.67% 5
Revolutionary Socialist Party RSP United Front 0.55% 5
Haryana Lok Dal (Rashtriya) HLD(R) 0.53% 4
Pattali Makkal Katchi PMK NDA 0.42% 4
Republican Party of India RPI 0.37% 4
Tamil Maanila Congress TMC(M) United Front 1.4% 3
Lok Shakti LS NDA 0.69% 3
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhhagam MDMK NDA 0.44% 3
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference NC 0.21% 3
All India Forward Bloc AIFB United Front 0.33% 2
Muslim League Kerala State Committee MUL Congress 0.22% 2
Arunachal Congress AC 0.05% 2
Nominated Anglo-Indians - -% 2
All India Rashtriya Janata Party AIRJP Jan Morcha 0.56% 1
Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) SJP(R) Jan Morcha 0.32% 1
Haryana Vikas Party HVP NDA 0.24% 1
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimen AIMIM 0.13% 1
All India Indira Congress (Secular) AIIC(S) United Front 0.12% 1
Janata Party JP NDA 0.12% 1
Kerala Congress (Mani) KC Congress 0.1% 1
United Minorities Front, Assam UMFA 0.1% 1
Peasants and Workers Party of India PWPI 0.07% 1
Autonomous State Demand Committee ASDC 0.05% 1
Manipur State Congress Party MSCP 0.05% 1
Sikkim Democratic Front SDF 0.03% 1
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha JMM Jan Morcha 0.36% 0
Asom Gana Parishad AGP United Front 0.29% 0
Hill Peoples' Democratic Party HPDP 0.2% 0
NTR Telugu Desam Party (Lakshmi Parvathi) NTRTDP(LP) NDA 0.1% 0
Kerala Congress KC United Front 0.09% 0
United Democratic Party UDP 0.06% 0
United Goans Democratic Party UGDP 0.04% 0
Manipur Peoples Party MPP 0.03% 0
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party MGP 0.02% 0
Mizo National Front MNF NDA 0.02% 0
Total 100% 545

Summary

Alliance % of votes Seats
National Democratic Alliance 46.61% 254
Congress & allies 26.42% 144
United Front 11.74% 64
Jan Morcha 4.40% 24
Others 10.82% 59
Total 100% 545

Results by state

States

(Please help expand this section with correct data) National Democratic Alliance (NDA) won the election. Its constituents were Bharatiya Janata Party, Akali Dal, Shiv Sena, Telugu Desam, All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagham (AIADMK of Jayalalithaa) et al. Constituents of United Progressive Alliance (UPA) were Congress, Lalu Janata Dal, Nationalist Congress Party (NCP of Sharad Pawar), Kerala Muslim League, et al.

Andhra Pradesh (Total seats - 42) Congress - 22, Telugu Desam - 12, BJP - 4

Assam (Seats - 13) Congress - 10

Bihar (Total - 54) BJP (Part of NDA) - 19, Samata Party (Part of NDA) - 10, Rashtriya Janata Dal (Lalu Yadav) - 17, Congress - 4

Gujarat (Total seats - 26) Bharatiya Janata Party - 19, Congress - 7

Karnataka (Seats - 28) BJP - 13, Congress - 9

Madhya Pradesh (Seats in MP - 40) BJP - 30, Congress - 10

Maharashtra (Seats - 48) BJP - 4, Shiv Sena - 6, Congress (Part of UPA) - 31, RPI (Part of UPA) - 6,

Rajasthan (Total - 25) BJP - 5, Congress - 19

Tamil Nadu AIADMK (Part of NDA) - 18, BJP (NDA) - 3, DMK - 5, Tamil Manila Congress - 3

Uttar Pradesh (Seats in UP - 85) BJP - 58, Congress - Zero, Samajwadi Party (Mulayam Singh Yadav) - 19, BSP (Mayawati) - 4

West Bengal (Total - 42) CPI(M) - 24, CPI - 3, FB - 2, RSP - 4, Trinamool Congress - 7 Congress - 1, BJP - 1

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-757497.html
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.