World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

List of endangered languages

Article Id: WHEBN0021606152
Reproduction Date:

Title: List of endangered languages  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Michif language, Chukchi language, List of extinct languages, Language revitalization, Minority language, Chulym language, Ona language, List of endangered languages in Europe
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

List of endangered languages

In order to be listed, a language must be classified as "endangered" in an academic source quoted. SIL Ethnologue (2005) lists 473 out of 6,909 living languages inventorized (6.8%) as "nearly extinct", indicating cases where "only a few elderly speakers are still living"; this figure dropped to 6.1% as of 2013.[1]

In order to judge if a language is endangered, the number of speakers is less important than the age distribution; There are languages in Indonesia reported with as many as two million native speakers alive now, but all of advancing age, with little or no transmission to the young. On the other hand, while there are 30,000 Ladin speakers left, almost all children still learn it as their mother tongue, thus Ladin is not endangered in the 21st century. Similarly, the Hawaiian language has only about 1,000 speakers but it has stabilized at this number, and now has school instruction in the language, from Pūnana Leo Hawaiian immersion preschool classes and Ke Kula Kaiāpuni Hawaiʻi, Hawaiian immersion schools kindergarten through the 12th grade. Much inspiration comes from Kōhanga Reo (Māori immersion preschools), Kura Kaupapa Māori (immersion primary and secondary schools), and Te Whare Wananga (immersion tertiary institutions or immersion universities).

UNESCO distinguishes four levels of endangerment in languages, based on intergenerational transfer:[2]

Vulnerable
Most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home).
Definitely endangered
Children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home.
Severely endangered
Language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves.
Critically endangered
The youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently.

While there are somewhere around six or seven thousand languages on Earth today, about half of them have fewer than about 3,000 speakers. Experts predict that even in a conservative scenario, about half of today's languages will become extinct within the next fifty to one hundred years. Accordingly, the list above presents only a sample of the approximately 3,000 currently endangered languages.

See also

References

External links

  • Onkwehonwe.com Learning Labs
  • ISBN 1-55671-159-X).
  • UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
  • National Geographic - Enduring Voices
  • EndangeredLanguages.com
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.