World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Mathura, Uttar Pradesh

Article Id: WHEBN0027043653
Reproduction Date:

Title: Mathura, Uttar Pradesh  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ahmad Shah Durrani, Aurangzeb, Agra Canal, History of Pakistan, 111, Krishna, Wilfred Bion, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Timeline of telescopes, observatories, and observing technology, Satrap
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Mathura, Uttar Pradesh

This article is about the municipality in Uttar Pradesh, India. For its namesake district, see Mathura district.
For other uses, see Mathura (disambiguation).
Mathura
मथुरा
City

Road in front of the Krishna Temple
Mathura
Mathura

Coordinates: 27°29′33″N 77°40′25″E / 27.49250°N 77.67361°E / 27.49250; 77.67361Coordinates: 27°29′33″N 77°40′25″E / 27.49250°N 77.67361°E / 27.49250; 77.67361

Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Mathura
Population
 • Total 264,546
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 281 001
Telephone code 91(565)
Vehicle registration UP-85
Website

Mathura (caravan routes. Today, it is a fast expanding city with over 2.5 million residents.

According to Hindu scriptures Mathura is the birthplace of the deity Lord Krishna at the centre of Braj or Brij-bhoomi, called Shri Krishna Janma-Bhoomi, literally: 'Lord Krishna's birthplace'. The Keshav Dev Temple was built in ancient times on the site of Krishna's legendary birthplace (an underground prison). According to the Mahabharata and Bhagavata Purana epics, Mathura was the capital of the Surasena Kingdom, ruled by Kansa the maternal uncle of Shri Krishna.

History


Mathura has an ancient history. According to the Archeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana. In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon called Lavanasura and claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, then Madhupura and later Mathura. The demon that Shatrughan killed in Ramayana, Lavanasura was the progeny of a devout king Madhu who gets Lord Shiva's Trident in a boon in the Puranas. The Puranas ascribe the founding of the city to Ayu, the son of Pururavas and the celestial nymph Urvashi. The city might also have got its name from a famous Yadav king Madhu who reigned around 1,600 BCE..MATHUR kayastha caste served as kings and ministers during ramayana period.

In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena mahajanapada.[1] The city was later ruled by the Maurya empire (4th to 2nd centuries BCE) and the Sunga dynasty (2nd century BCE). It may have come under the control of Indo-Greeks some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE. It then reverted to local rule before being conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the 1st century BCE. Archaeological evidence seems to indicate that, by 100 BCE, there was a group of Jains living in Mathura [Bowker].

Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of their capitals, the other being Purushapura (Peshawar). The dynasty had kings with the names of Kujula Kadphises, Kanishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva. All the Kushans were patrons of Buddhism except Vasudeo, mentioned on coins as Bazodeo. Kanishka even hosted the third Buddhist council, the first two being hosted by Ajatshatru and Ashoka the Great. The headless statue of Kanishka is in the Mathura Museum.

Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BCE, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name Μέθορα (Méthora).[2]

The Indo-Scythians (aka Sakas or Shakas) conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60 BCE. One of their satraps was Hagamasha, who was in turn followed by the Saka Great Satrap Rajuvula.

The findings of ancient stone inscriptions in Maghera, a town 17 km from Mathura, provide historical artifacts giving more details on this era of Mathura.[3] The opening of the 3 line text of these inscriptions are in Brahmi script and were translated as: "In the 116th year of the Greek kings..."[4][5]

The Mathura lion capital, an Indo-Scythian sandstone capital in crude style, dated to the 1st century CE, describes in kharoshthi the gift of a stupa with a relic of the Buddha, by Queen Nadasi Kasa, the wife of the Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura, Rajuvula. The capital also mentions the genealogy of several Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura.

Rajuvula apparently eliminated the last of the Indo-Greek kings, Strato II, around 10 CE, and took his capital city, Sagala.

The Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions attest that Mathura fell under the control of the Sakas. The inscriptions contain references to Kharaosta Kamuio and Aiyasi Kamuia. Yuvaraja Kharostes (Kshatrapa) was the son of Arta, as is attested by his own coins.[6]

Arta is stated to be brother of King Moga or Maues.[7] Princess Aiyasi Kambojaka, also called Kambojika, was the chief queen of Shaka Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula. Kamboja presence in Mathura is also verified from some verses of the epic, the Mahabharata, which are believed to have been composed around this period.[8] This may suggest that Sakas and Kambojas may have jointly ruled over Mathura and Uttar Pradesh. It is revealing that the Mahabharata verses only attest the Kambojas and Yavanas as the inhabitants of Mathura, but do not make any reference to the Sakas.

The Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. After Rajuvula, several successors are known to have ruled as vassals to the Kushans, such as the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, who are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka (c 130 CE), in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushans.[9]

Mathura served as one of the Kushan Empire's two capitals from the first to the third centuries. The Mathura Museum has the largest collection of redstone sculptures in Asia, depicting many famous Buddha figurines.

Fa Xian mentions the city, as a centre of Buddhism about A.D. 400; while his successor Xuanzang, who visited the city in 634 CE, which he mentions as Mot'ulo, and said that it contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples.[10] Later, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river.[11]

The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1489 to 1517.[12][13]

Sikander Lodhi earned the epithet of 'But Shikan', the 'Destroyer of Hindu deities'. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, built the city's Jami Masjid (Friday mosque) . The noteworthy fact is that the exact place of birth of Lord Krishna,according to historians,is in the place of worship of the Hindus,though the mosque was built near the birthplace of Lord Krishna. The ambience of the birthplace of Lord Krishna has been made to resemble that of the Prison cell.The garbh-griha mandir is a small underground temple which houses black moorti of Laddu-Gopal. The bigger Krishna shrine, better known as Dwarkadeesh temple is a few metres away from what is believed to be the actual birthplace of Krishna, was built in 1815 by Seth Gokuldas Parikh, Treasurer of Gwalior.

Geography

Mathura is located at 27°17′N 77°25′E / 27.28°N 77.41°E / 27.28; 77.41.[14] It has an average elevation of 174 metres (570 feet).

Demographics

Religions in Mathura
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
83%
Muslims
  
15%
Christians
  
0.2%
Jains
  
1.4%
Others†
  
0.4%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.2%), Buddhists (<0.2%).

2011 census of India estimates the population of Mathura to be 441,894, a decadal growth rate of 22.53 per cent from 2001 census of India. Males account for 54% (268,445) and females for 46% (173,449) of this population. Sex ratio of Mathura is 858 females per 1000 males, which has increased from 840 in 2001. However, national sex ratio is 940. Population density in 2011 has increased from 621 per km2 in 2001 to 761 per km2. Mathura has an average literacy rate of 72.65 per cent which has increased from 61.46 per cent in 2001 but still lower than the national average of 74.04 per cent. Male and female literacy rate are 84.39 and 58.93 per cent respectively. 15.61 per cent of Mathura's population is under 6 years of age. This figure was 19.56 per cent in 2001 census.[15] Mathura has large population of Jat and Yadavs [16] in rural areas and Brahmins & Baniyas in City.

Transportation

Rail

Mathura is well connected by train from major cities in India such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Ujjain, Rewa, Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi etc. City is served by four stations, Mathura Junction being the biggest one connecting to West, North and Southern India. Mathura Cantt connects to eastern Uttar Pradesh. Bhuteshwar serves for local trains for Delhi, Delhi NCR, Agra, Bharatpur and Alwar. Another station Krishnajanmabhoomi connects to Vrindavan via rail bus.


Road

Mathura is well connected by road to the rest of Uttar Pradesh and India. NH 2 (Delhi-Howrah) Highway passes through the city and connects to National Highway 3 (to Mumbai), a part of which is known as Mathura Road. NH-11 (Agra to Bikaner) and NH-93 (Moradabad) are also prominent arterial highways. Yamuna Expressway also connects to Mathura.

The city is served by Upsrtc, JNNURAM, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, DTC, Chandigarh and Punjab state transportation bus companies. Mathura depot, run by upsrtc - the Uttar Pradesh state bus company - runs 120 buses. Direct buses are available to Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jaipur, Udaipur, Ajmer, Delhi, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Kanpur, Meerut, Haridwar, Rohtak and other Indian cities. An intercity JnNURM bus facility also exists.

Air

As of now the city does not have an airport. The civil aviation minister Ajit Singh suggested Mathura's name for the site of a new greenfield international airport to chief minister of Uttar Pradesh Akhilesh Yadav. Mathura's name came into play when group of ministers terminated the planning of building Taj International Airport at Greater Noida. Land has been marked, and construction is in progress near the Yamuna Expressway, with plans to open in the next five years with regular flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Ujjain and Varanasi and some international routes in future.

The city is also set to be served by Pawan Hans helicopter services. With the regular operational rides to Delhi and Agra. The expected tariff from Mathura to Delhi is said to be INR 3000.

Tourism

Pilgrimage to
Buddha's
Holy Sites
The Four Main Sites
Lumbini · Bodh Gaya
Sarnath · Kushinagar
Four Additional Sites
Sravasti · Rajgir
Sankissa · Vaishali
Other Sites
Pataliputra · Gaya · Kosambi
Kapilavastu · Devadaha
Kesariya · Pava
Nalanda · Varanasi
Later Sites
Sanchi · Mathura
Ellora · Ajanta · Vikramshila
Ratnagiri · Udayagiri · Lalitgiri
Bharhut · Barabar Caves


Mathura is a holy city for Hinduism, the world's 3rd largest religion. There are many place of historic and religious importance in Mathura and its neighbouring towns. The major holy sites are listed below.

Major tourist sites

  • Keshav Dev Temple (Shri Krishna Janma Bhoomi)
  • Dwarikadheesh Temple
  • Vishram Ghat (Bank of River Yamuna)
  • Mathura Museum
  • Birla Mandir
  • Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi
  • Jain Chaurasi Temple
  • Akshay Patra Vrindavan
  • Iskcon Temple Vrindavan(World Renowned Hare Krishna Temple)
  • Askunda Ghat (Bank of river Yamuna)
  • Durvasa Rishi Mandir ( on the other side of yamuna and Boats are there to bring you to temple from Visharam ghar)
  • Pagal Baba Mandir Vrindavan
  • Prem Mandir vrindvan
  • Rangji Temple Vrindavan
  • Basanti Mahal Vrindavan
  • Ladli ji Mandir Barsana (famous for its laddoo mar holi)
  • Gokul
  • Shanidev Mandir kokilavan Kosikala
  • Goverdhan
  • Naam yog Sadhna Mandir (Baba Jai Gurudev Temple)
  • Garud Govind Temple Chhatikara

Places of interest

A very famous twin-city to Mathura is Vrindavan. As the home of Lord Krishna in his youth, the small town is host to a multitude of temples belonging to various sects of Hinduism proclaiming Lord Krishna in various forms and Avatars. Temples of historic and Hindu religion importance are:

  • Banke Bihari Temple
  • Maa Vaishno Mandir
  • Shani Dev Temple - Kokilavan Dhaam, Kosi Kalan. [17]
  • Rang ji Temple
  • Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi
  • Iskcon Temple.
  • Brahma Dev Temple, Village Chaumuhan.
  • Kalia Nag Temple, Village Jaint.
  • JAIN Chaurasi Temple
  • Prem Mandir
  • Pagal Baba Mandir

Baba Jai gurudev Mandir

Strategic importance

Mathura is the home for Indian I Corps (Strike Formation)[18][19] within the Indian Army's Central Command, hosting Strike I Corps headquarters in a large classified area in the outskirts of the city known as Mathura Cantonment (Central Command itself has its headquarters at Lucknow). It hosts Strike Infantry units, Air Defence units, Armoured Divisions, Engineer brigades, Aritillery Units and classified units of Strategic Nuclear Command. Corps I is primarily responsible for western borders of India. In 2007 during Exercise Ashwamedha, all the armoured, artillery and infantry divisions performed a simulation of an overall NBC (nuclear-chemical-biological) environment. The aim was to show operational ability in high intensity, short duration and 'sudden' battles.[20]

Industries

One of the major contributors in the economy of Uttar Pradesh are Mathura Industries. Mathura Refinery located in the city is one of the biggest oil refineries of Asia. This oil refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation is a highly technologically advanced oil refinery. Mathura Refinery is the first in Asia and third in the world to receive the coveted ISO-14001 certification for Environment Management System in 1996.[21]

Textile printing industry that includes both sari-printing and fabric dyeing and silver ornaments manufacturing are major industrial contributors to the region.[22] Apart from these other industries are water tap manufacturing units and other decorative and household items. Mathura also is a big centre for production of cotton materials;prominent among them being pure white bleached cotton sarees for women and dhotis for men,and cotton niwar tapes for beds. It is also a hub for production of milk based sweet meats,prominent among them being mathura Pedas and burfis. Renowned as the place where rivers of milk flowed, Mathura till today boasts of Milk trading centres where you can buy any amount of fresh milk where rates vary every few minutes and are notified on a black board akin to stock prices.

Educational institutions

R.C.A Girl's College is the premier institute for girls in the city. In modern times Mathura has become a hub of engineering colleges and universities. GLA University, R.K. Group of Institutions (including Rajiv Academy For Technology & Management, Rajiv Academy For Teacher's Education, Rajiv Academy For Pharmacy, K.D. Dental College & Hospital, etc.) and BSA College of engineering and technology, Excel Institute of Management & Technology has been accorded as status of university). 40 engineering & management colleges had been established in Mathura up to 12-12-2009.

Mathura is home to the Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Veterinary University, the first of its kind in the state and the fourth in the country to be made independent veterinary universities.[23] The University is located on the Mathura-Agra road, about 5 km from Mathura Junction. The main campus of the University is spread over a land area of 782.32 acres (3.1659 km2) in Mathura Cantt and about 1,400 acres (6 km2) at Madhurikund, about 20 km from the main campus.kesar devi ramswaroop inter college magorra-mathura[24]


Culture

Mathura has contributed a lot towards Indian Culture through its rich heritage. The ethos of Mathura, and in fact the whole of Braj mandal is centered on Krishna and his tales. Mathura sees heightened activities during the major festivities dedicated to Krishna.

The Braj culture has been expressed widely through various practices.

Sanjhee is the colourful art of decorating the ground with flowers.

Rasiya is a tradition that is integral to Mathura’s culture. It is the tradition of folk-songs that describe the love of the divine couple Radha and Krshnaji. It is an inseparable part of the Holi celebrations and all other festive occasions at Mathura. (Dhulendi – Holi with drums (dholak), colours, etc. originated from Braj region hundreds of millennia before today.)

Raaslilas of Mathura have become an integral part of Indian Folklore. According to popular belief, Krshnaji had danced the Raas with gopis on banks of Yamuna river.

Charkula is a traditional folk dance of the Braj. In this dance, a woman balances a column of deepikas on her head and dances to the accompaniment of Rasiya songs by the menfolk.

The language spoken in the Braj mandal is mainly Hindi which is spoken in a different dialect. This dialect is characteristic with the Braj region and known as Brajbhasha. Before Hindi and until past few centuries, Brajbhasha used to be the dominant language in literature.

Mathura is one of the seven most holy places for Hindus in India.

Ayodhyā Mathurā Māyā Kāsi Kāñchī Avantikā I

Purī Dvārāvatī chaiva saptaitā moksadāyikāh II - Garuḍa Purāṇa I XVI .14

A Kṣetra is a sacred ground, a field of active power, a place where Moksha, final release can be obtained. The Garuda Purana enumerates seven cities as giver of Moksha, They are Ayodhya, Mathura, Māyā, Kāsi, Kāñchī, Avantikā, Puri and Dvārāvatī.[25]

See also

Notes

Places to Visit

  1. Mathura
  2. Vrindavan
  3. Nandgaon
  4. Barsana
  5. Goverdhan
  6. Gokul
  7. Baldeo (Dauji)
  8. Chattikara
  9. Jaint
  10. Chaumuhan
  11. shernagar(kharal)

References

  • Mathura-The Cultural Heritage. Edited by Doris Meth Srinivasan, published in 1989 by AIIS/Manohar.
  • Bowker, John (2002). The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions, p. 60.
  • Konow, Sten. Editor. 1929. Kharoshthī Inscriptions with Exception of those of Asoka. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. II, Part I. Reprint: Indological Book House, Varanasi, 1969.
  • Mukherjee, B. N. 1981. Mathurā and its Society: The Śaka-Pahlava Phase. Firma K. L. M. Private Limited, Calcutta.
  • Sharma, R. C. 1976. Mathura Museum and Art. 2nd revised and enlarged edition. Government Museum, Mathura.
  • Growse, F. S. 1882. " Mathura A District Memoir.
  • Drake-Brockman, D. L. 1911. " Muttra A Gaztteer.
  • , by Smith, Vincent Arthur, 1848-1920. (1901)

External links

  • Mathura City E-Portal
  • Entry on Mathura in the Dictionary on Pali Proper Names
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.