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Title: Midriff  
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Subject: Navel, Choli, Gagra choli, Waist, Abdomen
Collection: Abdomen, Human Appearance
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


A woman wearing a cropped top that bares the midriff

Midriff is the front part of the human body between the chest (also called the thorax or bosom) and the pelvis or hips. The term is used (1) in place of the term belly, with its primary external physical feature, the navel; (2) as a synonym for waist; and (3) as a name for the area around (yet mainly below) the diaphragm (particularly including the stomach region).

The midriff is exposed when wearing a crop top or bikini. The cholis worn by Indian women also exposes a thin section of midriff, usually 3 to 4 inches, though the garment is not known for having sexual connotations and is a mark of traditional modesty.[1]

The Eastern art of belly dancing places the female midriff on center stage.[2] With proper dance instruction and physical conditioning, the midriff is capable of a wide range of physical movements. Belly dancers such as the tribal Rachel Brice and pop singers Britney Spears and Shakira are well known examples of this muscular midriff control.[3][4]


  • Etymology 1
  • Culture and history 2
    • Western culture 2.1
      • 1930s–1970s 2.1.1
      • 1980s–1990s 2.1.2
      • Recent times 2.1.3
    • Indian culture 2.2
  • As a marketing demographic 3
  • In schools 4
  • Further reading 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


"Midriff" is an old term in the English language, coming into use before 1000 AD.[5] In Old English it was written as "midhrif", with the old word "hrif" literally meaning stomach;[6] in Middle English it was "mydryf".[5] The word fell into obsolescence after the 18th century.

The word was revived in 1941 by the fashion industry,[6] partly to avoid use of the word "belly" which genteel women considered undesirable in reference to their bodies, as it has connotations of obesity. ("Belly" was a word which was forbidden to be used in films by the Hays Office censors. In the 1933 film 42nd Street, for instance, in the song Shuffle Off to Buffalo, Una Merkel is about to sing the lyric "with a shotgun at his belly", but stops after the "B" of "belly" and sings "tummy" instead.)

Culture and history

Western culture

A 1948 photo of Italian women in midriff-baring bikinis.
Midriff-baring tops are commonplace in cheerleading fashion which started in the 1970s.
A 1976 photo of women in midriff-baring crop tops in Berlin.
Actress Bianca Rinaldi in a 90's cropped top that exposes the midriff.


In some cultures, exposure of the midriff is socially discouraged or even banned, and the Western culture has historically been hesitant in the use of midriff-baring styles. Bill Blass commented, "It is too difficult. Women will much more readily wear bare-back or plunging-neckline styles."[7] It was introduced to fashion in 1932 by Madeleine Vionnet when she offered an evening gown with strategically cut openings at the waist. Women's swimwear of the 1930s and 1940s incorporated increasing degrees of midriff exposure. Teen magazines of late 1940s and 1950s featured similar designs of midriff-baring suits and tops. However, midriff fashion was stated as only for beaches and informal events and considered indecent to be worn in public.[8] However, exposure of the female midriff and navel was widely brought into everyday Western women's fashion in the 1960s' sexual revolution and later with the popularity of halters, tube tops and crop tops in the 1970s. The cheerleading style fashions developing largely from the styles originating with the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders in the early 1970s also played a crucial role for the popularity of midriff fashion at middle and high schools.[8][9]


During the 1980s, pop star Madonna appeared in bare midriff looks in her performances and music videos, which helped in spreading this fashion widely.[8][10] The popularity of the bare midriff continued well due to low-rise fashion which started in the early 1990s when the British magazine The Face in its March 1993 issue cover featured Kate Moss in low-rise jeans.[11] At the same time, the wide acceptance of navel display in Western societies, navel piercing[12] and navel tattoos[13] have become more common among young women. This raised the popularity of crop tops that expose the midriff and navel.[14] During the 1990s, many designers adapted to the trend. One way of showing the midriff that has proved popular with designers is simply fastening a jacket or vest at the neckline and letting it fall freely. When the wearer moves there is a flash of skin, but nothing startling. Fashion designer Carolina Herrera told, "the midriff doesn't have to be completely bare; a veil of chiffon over the midriff can look intriguing.".[15]

Recent times

Currently in Hollywood, the bare midriff is becoming the trend.[16] This midriff look flaunts one of the most desired symbols of beauty and health today: flat, toned abs. Jane magazine fashion editor Elizabeth Kiester once commented, "A woman's stomach and waist is the most feminine part of her body. It's sexy, but not overtly sexy like cleavage,"[17] Many celebrities have started to flaunt their midriffs at the red carpet, on stage, and in photo shoots. Gossip Girl star Leighton Meester flashed her abs in a body-hugging, long-sleeved shirt and skirt, while Nicole Richie showed a little ribcage in a floor-length, deconstructed dress cleverly missing its middle, as shown on Celebuzz.[18] Dolce & Gabbana 2012 resort presented this fruit-laden plethora of prints cut into belly-flattering fiesta-chic ensembles, which demonstrated that Midriff fashion is getting more prominence in mainstream fashion design.[19] In 2013, UCLA Football player Myles Jack revolutionized the midriff and brought it back to prominence in college football by rolling up his jersey and making the midriff visible.[20][21] In Spring-Summer 2015 Haute Couture show by Chanel at Paris, midriff-baring tops were a main focus.[22][23] Today, though exposed midriffs are an accepted feature of casual wear, it still makes up a small part of actual garments worn.

Indian culture

Actress and model Sherlyn Chopra in an Indian Sari that bares the midriff.

Baring the midriff has always been a fashion in Indian women attire.[24][25] Indian women have traditionally worn saris that bares the midriff, especially South Indian women.[26][27] The gap on the midriff between sari and the choli presented the elegance of a woman’s graceful sway of her gait.[28] A possible cultural justification is that in ancient Indian tradition, the navel of the God Vishnu the Protector is considered to be the center of the universe and the source of life.[29] From his navel a new world of the future emerges. This has been depicted in many ancient Indian sculptures as a lotus emerging from the navel on which God Brahma the Creator is seated.[30][31] Due to this the midriff is set to be left bare in a sari. Another reason could be due to the hot tropical climate of India.Since the sari is entirely wrapped around the body, the midriff is bared in order to cope up with the heat.Rathi Vinay Jha, director general of the Fashion Design Council of India told, "The bare midriff keeps you cool".[32] In modern fashion trends too,the sari is considered to be the classiest midriff revealer.[33] Men are intrigued by the demure floor-length attire and tantalising display of a bare midriff in the back.[34] But,it is the discretion of the wearer to decide how much of midriff she wants to bare and position the petticoat and pallu accordingly.[35]

By the Indian Physiognomy of a women's body, when the waist of a lady is fat, it indicates her loose character. A waist that is narrow, well formed, not too small nor very large or fleshy, smooth, is the sign of good luck. If the waist is bent, big, flabby, hairy, rough and crooked, then the lady will be wicked, shrewd and unfortunate. Short, soft belly with veins visible is a sign that woman is sweet and passionate. Hair on the waist indicates an unfortunate woman with a loose character.[36] The sari adapts to a woman's body, rather than defining it, allowing for pregnancy and otherwise expanding girth. And in a culture where having enough to eat is not a given, rolls of fat around the midriff are a sign of prestige, rather than indulgence.[37] Dr.Torsekar, a paediatrician from India who works in Toledo, Ohio, once told, "It maybe hard for American women to imagine going to work with an exposed midriff, but for Indian women, the midriff is considered no more suggestive than the forearm."[38]

Amisha Patel posing in a Ghagra Choli that bares the midriff.

Other Indian communities that take midriff in their stride include the women from Rajasthan who leave the midriff exposed while wearing Ghagra Cholis.[39] However, these women often cover their heads with a Dupatta[40] and even cover their faces in front of strangers, which enforces the belief that midriff-baring in India has a symbolic, almost mystical, association with birth and life and that the display is meant to emphasise the centrality of nature in the nurture role.[41] In spite of it, some Indian philosophers gave opposition to exposing midriff in saris. They considered it to be a symbol of adultery.[42] The only ornament accepted by the Hindu culture that can be worn in the midriff region are the waist chains. They are considered to be a part of bridal jewellery.[43]

Due to modern fashion trends, along with saris, the midriff-revealing ghaghra cholis are also popular. Designer Manish Malhotra's Fashion Week collections regularly highlight low waisted ghaghras accompanied by short cholis. Such ghagra cholis are more commonly worn by the Bollywood celebrities in films as well as in real life. For example, actress Malaika Arora Khan featured in midriff revealing ghagra choli without dupatta for the hit songs "Chaiyya Chaiyya" in Dil Se.. (1998)[44] and "Munni Badnam" in Dabangg (2010).[45] Actress Priyanka Chopra featured in a low rise ghagra choli designed by designer Ritu Kumar on the opening show of the HDIL India Couture Week 2008 held in Mumbai.[46][47][48] At the Blenders Pride Fashion Tour 2011, she featured in a low rise ghagra choli designed by Neeta Lulla.[49] Recently, actress Amisha Patel walked the ramp in a low rise green Ghagra Choli designed by Rocky S at Aamby Valley City India Bridal Week 2011.[50][51]

As a marketing demographic

According to the PBS Frontline documentary, "The Merchants of Cool",[52] "midriff" is a marketing classification for an American teenage female who is characterized as prematurely adult and consumed by appearances.

In schools

During the late 1940s, schools with dress codes added the bare midriff look to the forbidden list.[8] Even today, many American secondary schools have dress codes dating back to the 1970s against attire that leaves the midriff exposed.[53] An example of a test that some schools apply is to have the student raise her arms if it is suspected that her shirt will expose her midriff. Although more tolerated with younger girls, older female students, especially those over 18 years of age, can be disciplined for exposing their navels on school campuses. As an example, the dress code of the Sherman Independent School District in Texas requires that "there must be no exposure of the midriff area or undergarments. The midriff area must not be seen while bending over, while standing, raising arms, and stretching."[54]

In 2002, East Valley High School in Spokane Valley, Washington specified guidelines about inappropriate clothing in the school's student planner and handbook which includes "clothing that reveals the midriff".[55] In 2004, the Board of Education of Meriden, Connecticut, brought a dress code that banned shirts, blouses that expose the top of the shoulders, haltertops, spaghetti tops, and any clothing that exposed the waist, midriff or hips.[56]

The enforcement of such rules depends on the school itself, and varies widely. At schools with more relaxed or unenforced dress codes it is not uncommon to see girls with some midriff showing or exposed lower back midriff while sitting in class.

Further reading


See also


  1. ^ Vimla Menon (February 5, 2012). "The modest saree has come full circle". The Indian Express. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  2. ^ Charlene Chua (Mar 28, 2012). "Belly sexy dancing". Asia One. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  3. ^ Jane Henriksen. "Suzy Evans - A Dancer With a Vision". About Belly Dance. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Coeli Carr (Mar 27, 2005). "Body & Mind: Belly-Dance Boom". Time. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  5. ^ a b "Midriff",
  6. ^ a b "Midriff, the Online Etymology Dictionary
  7. ^ BERNADINE MORRIS (November 30, 1993). "Baring Midriffs: A Little, a Lot or Not?". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d Claudia Mitchell, Jacqueline Reid-Walsh (2008). Girl Culture: Studying girl culture : a readers' guide Volume 1 of Girl Culture: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 702.  
  9. ^ Tim Delaney, Tim Madigan (2009). Sports: Why People Love Them!. University Press of America. p. 248.  
  10. ^ Julia Baird (April 1, 2012). "What happened to Madonna". The Age. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  11. ^ "Navel Mauvers". New York Magazine. 10 May 1993. p. 26. Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  12. ^ Designing Clothes - Culture and Organization of the Fashion Industry - Veronica Manlow
  13. ^ Rhetorics of display - Lawrence J. Prelli
  14. ^ Cropped tops = midriff mania = abs-olutely erotic - ESTHER GROSS KREMER
  15. ^ BERNADINE MORRIS (December 15, 1992). "Boldly or Demurely, The Midriff Bares Itself". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  16. ^ Noelle Talmon. "Celebrity Style Watch: Belly Baring Crop Tops". Star Pulse. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  17. ^ "Grin and bare it -- the tummy, that is". Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  18. ^ "Hot Right Now Is the Bare Midriff". DailyGlow. Retrieved 8 January 2012. 
  19. ^ "Midriff is Getting Hotter in Fashion Design & Hollywood". StyleSwift. Retrieved 28 August 2012. 
  20. ^ "MylesJackMidriff (@clickclack6pack) op Twitter". Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  21. ^ Fray, Jason (2014-01-02). "UCLA Football 2013: Top Five Moments of Bruin Season - Go Joe Bruin - A UCLA Bruins Fan Site - News, Blogs, Opinion and more". Go Joe Bruin. Retrieved 2014-05-06. 
  22. ^ "Midriff 'the new cleavage' at latest Chanel show". CTV News. January 27, 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  23. ^ Hannah Rochell. "Belly Buttons Are Back - And At Chanel Couture (Of All Places!)". Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  24. ^ Miller, Daniel & Banerjee, Mukulika; (2004) "The Sari", Lustre press / Roli books;
  25. ^ "Grange Official says Optimism Prevails about India's Future". Reading Eagle. Apr 6, 1969. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  26. ^ Alkazi, Roshan (1983) "Ancient Indian costume", Art Heritage;
  27. ^ Ghurye (1951) "Indian costume", Popular book depot (Bombay)
  28. ^ D K Havanoor (17 March 2012). "The endangered sari". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  29. ^ Principles of composition in Hindu sculpture: cave temple period - Alice Boner.
  30. ^ Indian Sculpture: Circa 500 B.C.-A.D. 700 - Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Pratapaditya Pal.
  31. ^ Indian Sculpture: 700-1800 - Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Pratapaditya Pal.
  32. ^ "Don't tell Liz, but the sari's so out". The Guardian. 24 April 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  33. ^ Rise of the Navel – Bollywood navel fashion has led to re-emergence of sari. India Today.
  34. ^ NOVIA MCDONALD-WHYTE (August 12, 2002). "Unfolding the Indian Sari". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  35. ^ Anita Rao Kashi. "How to Wear a Sari in India". World Hum. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  36. ^ Physiognomy Of Women
  37. ^ Suzy Menkes (May 29, 1994). "RUNWAYS; Naked Came The Midriff". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  38. ^ Tahree Lane (Mar 22, 1998). "Sari". Toledo Blade. Retrieved 21 March 2012. 
  39. ^ Social Science a Textbook in History for Class IX as per New Syllabus - FK Publications
  40. ^ India - R.I.C. Publications
  41. ^ Beck, Brenda. (1976) The Symbolic Merger of Body, Space, and Cosmos in Hindu Tamil Nadu. Contributions to Indian Sociology 10(2): 213-43.
  42. ^ Sarvajna: the omniscient poet of Karnataka - Basavaraj Naikar.
  43. ^ Indianapolis Monthly - Jun 2004
  44. ^ Top 10 Navels in Cinema - India Today
  45. ^ Rise of the Navel 'Bollywood navel fashion has led to re-emergence of sari' - India Today
  46. ^ Priyanka's fashionable walk -
  47. ^ HDIL India Couture Week -
  48. ^ Priyanka dresses up for India Couture Week - IBNLive
  49. ^ Priyanka Chopra: Luscious in Lace at Blenders Pride Fashion Tour 2011 -
  50. ^ Amisha Patel In Green Lehenga Choli
  51. ^ Ameesha Patel walks for Rocky S at Aamby Valley City India Bridal Week 2011 -
  52. ^ PBS: The Merchants of Cool
  53. ^ Erin Shannon and Justin Graeber. "VIDEO: School dress codes being tested by warm weather". GateHouse News Service. Wicked Local. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  54. ^ "Sherman High School Dress Code". 
  55. ^ Virginia deLeon (Sep 4, 2002). "Some schools draw the line below navel". The Spokesman-Review. Retrieved 12 April 2012. 
  56. ^ Martin J. Waters (Dec 15, 2004). "BOE sets student dress code:no hats, less skin". Record-Journal. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 

External links

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