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Sikandar Lodi

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Sikandar Lodi

Sikander Lodhi
Sultan of Delhi
Reign 1489–1517
Coronation July 17, 1489
Predecessor Bahlul Lodi
Successor Ibrahim Lodi
Died November 21, 1517
Burial Lodi Gardens, Delhi
Issue Ibrahim Lodi
Dynasty Lodi dynasty
Father Bahlol Khan
Religion Islam

Sikander Lodi (died November 21, 1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 to 1517.[1] He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489.[2][3] The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, he was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses.[4]

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Biography

The top two storeys of the Qutub Minar were reconstructed in marble by Sikander Lodi

Sikandar was the son of Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi and Bibi Ambha, the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind. Sikandar was of Pashtun origin through his father.[5]

He became Sultan upon the death of his father on July 17, 1489. His rise to power was troubled, as his older brother, Barbak Shah, the viceroy of Jaunpur, also laid claim to the throne, even though their father had nominated Sikandar. However, he was able to ascend to the throne without massive bloodshed, and even allowed his brother to continue ruling Jaunpur. He also settled differences with an uncle, Alam Khan, who was also suspected of seeking to seize power.

Sikandar was a capable ruler who encouraged trade across his territory, but discriminated against Hindu subjects. He expanded Lodi territory into the regions of Gwalior and Bihar. He made a treaty with Alauddin Hussain Shah and his kingdom of Bengal. In 1503, he commissioned the building of the present-day city of Agra. Agra was founded by him.

He has a reputation for religious intolerance, and is said to have burned Bodhan, a Hindu sadhu alive for saying that Islam and Hinduism were equally acceptable to God.

Coin of Sikandar Lodi

The History of the Delhi Sultanate by M.M. Syed notes that Sikandar Lodi frequently razed temples and erected mosques in their place, for example at Mandrail, Utgir, and Narwar. In Mathura, he prevented Hindus from bathing in the sacred ghats and from shaving. According to Ubaid-Ullah Sindhi in the book Khutbat-o-Makalat Ubaid-Ullah SIndhi, Sikandar Lodi made Hindus learn Persian and gave them office jobs.

He wrote poetry in Persian using the pen name Gulrukhi. He introduced auditing in accounts..he took good care of justice and agriculture for the welfare of people.he introduced a system of Gaz-i-sikandari,means 32 digit of measuring system of cultivated lands. Among the administrative changes made by Sikandar Lodi was the installation of Persian language as the official language for the accountancy in India. 1514. Mat̲nawī-yi mihr u māh (905H.). Publication of the Iran Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies, serial no.

Sikandar Lodi tried to conquer the Gwalior Fort, and he attacked five times, but was foiled on all occasions by the king of Gwalior Maharaja Mansingh. He developed Agra as his second capital (after Delhi), as it took a lot of time to travel from Delhi to Gwalior. Agra was known as Shiraz of India during Sikandar Lodi's time.[6] Finally he attacked a small region, near Gwalior named Narwar, and he had to wait 11 months at the gates of the Narwar fort, after 11 months when the people found that nothing had left to eat, they surrendered to Sikandar Lodi. Once again he attacked on Gwalior, and was defeated by Maharaja Mansingh and his wife Mrignayani.

He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial tomb that resides in Lodi Gardens, Delhi.

See also

References

  1. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–125.  
  2. ^ SULṬĀN SIKANDAR IBN I SULTĀN BUHLŪL, The Muntakhabu-'rūkh by Al-Badāoni (16th century historian), Packard Humanities Institute.
  3. ^ Lodi Kings: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
  4. ^ Ram Nath Sharma, History Of Education In India, Atlantic (1996), p. 61
  5. ^ Lodī dynasty - Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. ^ "Agra Under Sikandar Lodi". 

External links

  • Lodī dynasty - Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Sikandar Lodi Tomb pics Pictures of the tomb of Sikandar Lodi at Delhi
  • http://www.indhistory.com/lodi-dynasty.html
  • http://www.webindia123.com/history/MEDIEVAL/delhisultanate/delhi%20sultanate4.htm
Preceded by
Bahlul Khan Lodi
Sultan of Delhi
1489–1517
Succeeded by
Ibrahim Lodi

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